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Subsurface productivity is limited by nutrient availability, as the anoxic bottom waters act as a sink for reduced nitrate , in the form of ammonia. The benthic zone also plays an important role in Black Sea nutrient cycling, as chemosynthetic organisms and anoxic geochemical pathways recycle nutrients which can be upwelled to the photic zone, enhancing productivity.

In total, the Black Sea’s biodiversity contains around one-third of the Mediterranean’s and is experiencing natural and artificial invasions or “Mediterranizations”. The main phytoplankton groups present in the Black Sea are dinoflagellates , diatoms , coccolithophores and cyanobacteria. Generally, the annual cycle of phytoplankton development comprises significant diatom and dinoflagellate-dominated spring production, followed by a weaker mixed assemblage of community development below the seasonal thermocline during summer months, and surface-intensified autumn production.

Since the s, rapid industrial expansion along the Black Sea coastline and the construction of a major dam has significantly increased annual variability in the N:P:Si ratio in the basin. In coastal areas, the biological effect of these changes has been an increase in the frequency of monospecific phytoplankton blooms, with diatom bloom frequency increasing by a factor of 2.

The non-diatoms, such as the prymnesiophytes Emiliania huxleyi coccolithophore , Chromulina sp. The decline in macrophytes was further compounded by overfishing during the s, while the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis reduced the biomass of copepods and other zooplankton in the late s.

Additionally, an alien species—the warty comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi —was able to establish itself in the basin, exploding from a few individuals to an estimated biomass of one billion metric tons. In central Black Sea waters, silicon levels were also significantly reduced, due to a decrease in the flux of silicon associated with advection across isopycnal surfaces. This phenomenon demonstrates the potential for localized alterations in Black Sea nutrient input to have basin-wide effects.

Pollution reduction and regulation efforts have led to a partial recovery of the Black Sea ecosystem during the s, and an EU monitoring exercise, ‘EROS21’, revealed decreased nitrogen and phosphorus values, relative to the peak.

Mnemiopsis leidyi populations have been checked with the arrival of another alien species which feeds on them. Hermit crab , Diogenes pugilator. Black Sea common dolphins with a kite-surfer off Sochi. The Dardanelles is 55 m ft deep, and the Bosporus is as shallow as 36 m ft. By comparison, at the height of the last ice age , sea levels were more than m ft lower than they are now.

There is evidence that water levels in the Black Sea were considerably lower at some point during the post-glacial period. Some researchers theorize that the Black Sea had been a landlocked freshwater lake at least in upper layers during the last glaciation and for some time after.

In the aftermath of the last glacial period, water levels in the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea rose independently until they were high enough to exchange water. The exact timeline of this development is still subject to debate. One possibility is that the Black Sea filled first, with excess freshwater flowing over the Bosporus sill and eventually into the Mediterranean Sea.

The hypothesis was headlined when The New York Times published it in December , shortly before it was published in an academic journal. Relevant to the hypothesis is that its description has led some to connect this catastrophe with prehistoric flood myths. The Black Sea was a busy waterway on the crossroads of the ancient world: the Balkans to the west, the Eurasian steppes to the north, the Caucasus and Central Asia to the east, Asia Minor and Mesopotamia to the south, and Greece to the southwest.

The land at the eastern end of the Black Sea, Colchis in present-day Georgia , marked for the ancient Greeks the edge of the known world. The steppes to the north of the Black Sea have been suggested as the original homeland Urheimat of the speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language PIE by scholars such as Marija Gimbutas ; others postulate a homeland further east towards the Caspian Sea , yet others to Anatolia.

Greek presence in the Black Sea began at least as early as the 9th century BC with colonies scattered along the Black Sea’s southern coast, attracting traders and colonists due to the grain grown in the Black Sea hinterland. While Greek colonies generally maintained very close cultural ties to their founding polis , Greek colonies in the Black Sea began to develop their own Black Sea Greek culture, known today as Pontic.

The coastal communities of Black Sea Greeks remained a prominent part of the Greek world for centuries, [92] [ page needed ] and the realms of Mithridates of Pontus , Rome and Constantinople spanned the Black Sea to include Crimean territories. The Black Sea became a virtual Ottoman Navy lake within five years of the Republic of Genoa losing control of the Crimean Peninsula in , after which the only Western merchant vessels to sail its waters were those of Venice ‘s old rival Ragusa.

Black sea became a trade route of slaves between Crimea and Ottoman Anatolia. This restriction was challenged by the Russian Navy from until the relaxation of export controls in because of the French Revolution.

It once again became a major battleground when Russia attacked Ukraine in Two big Russian Navy ships have been destroyed by the Ukrainians; one is the Moskva and the other is Majorva. The concentration of historical powers , combined with the preservative qualities of the deep anoxic waters of the Black Sea, has attracted increased interest from marine archaeologists who have begun to discover a large number of ancient ships and organic remains in a high state of preservation.

The Black Sea plays an integral part in the connection between Asia and Europe. According to NATO , the Black Sea is a strategic corridor that provides smuggling channels for moving legal and illegal goods including drugs, radioactive materials, and counterfeit goods that can be used to finance terrorism.

According to an International Transport Workers’ Federation study, there were at least 30 operating merchant seaports in the Black Sea including at least 12 in Ukraine. The Turkish commercial fishing fleet catches around , tons of anchovies per year. The fishery is carried out mainly in winter, and the highest portion of the stock is caught between November and December.

In the s, the Soviet Union started offshore drilling for petroleum in the sea’s western portion adjoining Ukraine ‘s coast. Independent Ukraine continued and intensified that effort within its exclusive economic zone , inviting major international oil companies for exploration.

Discovery of the new, massive oilfields in the area stimulated an influx of foreign investments. It also provoked a short-term peaceful territorial dispute with Romania which was resolved in by an international court redefining the exclusive economic zones between the two countries. The Black Sea contains oil and natural gas resources but exploration in the sea is incomplete. As of [update] , 20 wells are in place.

Throughout much of its existence, the Black Sea has had significant oil and gas-forming potential because of significant inflows of sediment and nutrient-rich waters. However, this varies geographically. For example, prospects are poorer off the coast of Bulgaria because of the large influx of sediment from the Danube which obscured sunlight and diluted organic-rich sediments. Many of the discoveries to date have taken place offshore of Romania in the Western Black Sea and only a few discoveries have been made in the Eastern Black Sea.

During the Eocene , the Paratethys Ocean was partially isolated and sea levels fell. During this time sand shed off the rising Balkanide, Pontide and Caucasus mountains trapped organic material in the Maykop Suite of rocks through the Oligocene and early Miocene. Natural gas appears in rocks deposited in the Miocene and Pliocene by the paleo-Dnieper and paleo-Dniester rivers, or in deep-water Oligocene-age rocks.

Although geologists inferred that these rocks might have hydrocarbons that migrated from the Maykop Suite, the well was unsuccessful. No more drilling happened for five years after the HPX-1 well. Then in , Sinop-1 targeted carbonate reservoirs potentially charged from the nearby Maykop Suite on the Andrusov Ridge, but the well-struck only Cretaceous volcanic rocks.

A different Turkish well, Kastamonu-1 drilled in did successfully find thermogenic gas in Pliocene and Miocene shale-cored anticlines in the Western Black Sea.

A year later in , Romania drilled Domino-1 which struck gas prompting the drilling of other wells in the Neptun Deep. In , the Bulgarian well Polshkov-1 targeted Maykop Suite sandstones in the Polshkov High and Russia is in the process of drilling Jurassic carbonates on the Shatsky Ridge as of In August , Turkey found billion cubic metres 11 trillion cubic feet of natural gas in the biggest ever discovery in the Black Sea, and hoped to begin production in the Sakarya Gas Field by The sector is near where Romania has also found gas reserves.

In the years following the end of the Cold War , the popularity of the Black Sea as a tourist destination steadily increased. Tourism at Black Sea resorts became one of the region’s growth industries. The following is a list of notable Black Sea resort towns:. The Montreux Convention provides for free passage of civilian ships between the international waters of the Black and the Mediterranean seas.

However, a single country Turkey has complete control over the straits connecting the two seas. Military ships are categorised separately from civilian vessels and can pass through the straits only if the ship belongs to a Black Sea country. Other military ships have the right to pass through the straits [ clarification needed ] if they are not in a war against Turkey and if they stay in the Black Sea basin for a limited time.

The amendments to the Montreux Convention allow Turkey to close the straits at its discretion in both war and peacetime. The Montreux Convention governs the passage of vessels between the Black, the Mediterranean and Aegean seas and the presence of military vessels belonging to non- littoral states in the Black Sea waters. Soviet hospital ship Armenia was sunk on 7 November by German aircraft while evacuating civilians and wounded soldiers from Crimea.

It has been estimated that approximately 5, to 7, people were killed during the sinking, making it one of the deadliest maritime disasters in history. There were only 8 survivors. In December , the Kerch Strait incident occurred, in which the Russian navy and coast guard took control of three Ukrainian vessels as the ships were trying to enter the Black Sea. In April , during the Russian invasion of Ukraine , the Russian cruiser Moskva was sunk in the western Black Sea by sea-skimming Neptune missiles of the Ukrainian armed forces [] while the Russians claimed that an onboard fire had caused munitions to explode and damage the ship extensively.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Eurasian sea northeast of the Mediterranean. This article is about the large body of water. For other uses, see Black Sea disambiguation. For the town of ancient Caria, see Euxine Caria. Body of water. Map of the Black Sea with bathymetry and surrounding relief.

Main article: List of islands in the Black Sea. Thomas Island — Bulgaria St. Anastasia Island — Bulgaria St. Cyricus Island — Bulgaria St. Ivan Island — Bulgaria St. See also: List of fish of the Black Sea. Goat fish. Spiny dogfish. Main article: Black Sea deluge hypothesis. Water portal. University of Delaware College of Marine Studies.

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